Over the previous two and a half weeks, Google has known as a dozen witnesses to defend itself in opposition to claims by the Justice Division and a gaggle of state attorneys normal that it illegally maintained a search and promoting monopoly, in a landmark antitrust case that might reshape tech energy.
Google’s legal professionals are set to wrap up their arguments within the case — U.S. et al. v. Google — on Tuesday, which shall be adopted by a authorities rebuttal. Decide Amit P. Mehta of U.S. District Court docket for the District of Columbia, who’s presiding over the nonjury trial, is anticipated to ship a verdict subsequent yr after either side summarize their circumstances in writing and ship closing arguments.
The corporate’s principal protection has centered on how its actions had been justified and the way it helped customers and competitors. Listed here are Google’s principal arguments.
How Google’s actions had been justified
It paid Apple an acceptable (and undisclosed) amount of cash
The guts of the U.S. case in opposition to Google is that the corporate paid Apple and different tech platforms to make itself the default search engine on the iPhone and different units, thereby holding rivals from competing and stopping Apple from doubtlessly creating its personal search product.
However on the witness stand, Sundar Pichai, Google’s chief govt, stated there was “worth” in being the default search engine on a tool and framed the agreements with different firms as sound enterprise choices.
Google paid $26.3 billion for its search engine to be the default choice on cell and desktop browsers in 2021, in response to the corporate’s inside information introduced through the trial. Most of that, round $18 billion, went to Apple, The New York Occasions has reported. Kevin Murphy, a Google financial skilled, testified on Monday that Google shared 36 p.c of search income from the default cope with Apple.
Mr. Pichai testified that he repeatedly renewed the search engine cope with Apple as a result of it labored properly, resulting in a rise in search utilization and income and benefiting Apple, Google and its shareholders. He stated Google paid Apple a lot to guard customers’ search expertise on iPhones, not realizing if Apple would degrade that have if Google hadn’t improved the monetary phrases of the deal.
“There was a number of uncertainty about what would occur if the deal didn’t exist,” he stated.
Google shouldn’t be the one search sport on the town
To rebuff the concept different engines like google had been too small to compete for default standing on browsers, Google’s legal professionals argued on the trial that rivals had been capable of win contracts however couldn’t maintain on to them due to the poor high quality of their merchandise.
They cited an occasion in 2014 when Mozilla, which makes the Firefox browser, exited a default-search partnership with Google and chosen Yahoo.
The selection was unpopular with customers and disastrous for the Firefox browser, Mitchell Baker, Mozilla’s chief govt, stated in a deposition that was performed on the trial. Yahoo’s person expertise deteriorated and have become overloaded with adverts, she stated, and it was “heartbreaking” to ship customers to Yahoo. Mozilla returned to Google in 2017.
Authorities legal professionals pointed to Google’s greater than 90 p.c market share in search as proof that the corporate’s actions stifled significant competitors. However Google’s legal professionals stated its search market share was solely a part of the story, as a result of the corporate competed broadly with extra gamers, together with TikTok and Amazon, the place customers search for data on-line.
The federal government additionally accused Google of abusing its place within the on-line advert market. Google once more sought to widen the aperture at trial, saying it was vying for advert spending that might have in any other case gone to any firm from Expedia to Meta, which owns Fb and Instagram.
How Google helped folks and fostered competitors
It has invested greater than search rivals in making its product nice
One thrust of Google’s protection was that its focus and investments in search didn’t hurt customers and others, as the federal government has tried to argue, however as an alternative introduced advantages.
On multiple event, Google referred to the sums of cash it spent on analysis and growth. Final yr, the determine totaled about $40 billion. Prabhakar Raghavan, Google’s head of search, testified that such investments helped the corporate ship one of the best know-how to customers.
“It might be silly of us to not put our greatest foot ahead,” he stated. That was the rationale Google employed 8,000 engineers and product managers for its search engine, together with about 1,000 folks targeted on high quality, he added.
Google argued that its rivals had not invested in the identical approach. When questioning Satya Nadella, Microsoft’s chief govt, earlier within the trial, a Google lawyer pushed him on whether or not Microsoft nonetheless devoted fewer workers to its search engine, Bing, than Google did to its search product. Mr. Nadella averted the specifics of Microsoft’s personnel and stated the corporate was investing primarily in core areas of the search enterprise.
Its improvements have helped customers world wide
Google stated it had set the tempo for tech developments. It stated it had up to date its Chrome browser each six weeks, extra incessantly than Microsoft had historically up to date its browser, Web Explorer. It has launched Android options that pressured Apple to reply, leading to extra apps and different smartphone options, Mr. Pichai testified within the trial.
Throughout cross-examinations, Justice Division legal professionals sought to underscore that Google might have introduced extra innovation to customers however didn’t so it might safeguard its monopoly. They pointed to a 2019 Google proposal to create an incognito search engine, which might not have saved any information on customers however might have misplaced the corporate billions in income. Google determined to not construct the browser.
Justice Division legal professionals sought to spotlight Google’s delay in bringing generative synthetic intelligence to customers, sitting on the know-how till OpenAI launched ChatGPT final November. It was a part of a broader authorities argument that Google had not adequately improved merchandise for customers till it felt aggressive strain.
The federal government has additionally accused Google of utilizing its energy in search and adverts to lift advert costs when it faces a income crunch. The corporate’s workers testified that it balanced its pursuit of income from every advert with making certain that customers usually noticed high-quality adverts in its search outcomes.
Its actions have been aggressive on steadiness, not anticompetitive
The Justice Division argued within the trial that Google’s actions harmed competitors and denied advantages to customers. If the federal government proves that hurt exists, it’s then as much as Google to show that these harms had been outweighed by advantages to competitors created by its actions.
To that finish, Google targeted within the trial on when it launched its search engine and different merchandise and the way its entry into these markets elevated competitors.
When Google rolled out its search engine in 1998, it was to a search market that was dominated by Yahoo, AltaVista and Ask Jeeves, the corporate argued. Its Chrome browser, which debuted in 2008, disrupted a browser market the place Microsoft’s Web Explorer reigned supreme, Google stated. And it fostered extra competitors in opposition to Apple’s iPhone with the Android working system, which it launched in 2008, the corporate stated.
Cecilia Kang contributed reporting.